呼吸困难 can be difficult to diagnose because there are so many different conditions that can cause it. 然而, most cases of shortness of breath are linked to heart and lung disease. 导致呼吸困难的原因包括:
- 肺条件: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 肺水肿, 肺炎, 而其他肺部问题更容易导致呼吸困难.
- 心血管疾病: 充血性心力衰竭， 心肌病, and other cardiac conditions can lead to a buildup of fluid around the heart that makes it difficult to breathe well.
- 呼吸系统问题: 条件 such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis lead to shortness of breath.
- 癌症: 呼吸困难 can be a side effect of cancer treatments such as radiation and chemotherapy.
- 胃食管反流病 (GERD): 如果病人有反流, stomach acid may enter their lungs and cause their airways to swell, 导致呼吸困难.
- 心理因素: 条件 such as anxiety and depression can cause a patient to hyperventilate.
- 贫血: An iron deficiency makes it more difficult for oxygen to circulate throughout the body, 导致呼吸急促.
某些因素，比如病人的病史, 家族病史, and other underlying health conditions may increase the risk of dyspnea. Patients who smoke or who rarely exercise can be more likely to experience shortness of breath.
如果病人有呼吸困难, 他们的医生可能会回顾他们的健康史, 现在的生活方式, 还有其他症状吗?. To gauge severity, they might ask how the condition affects the patient’s life, such as:
- What triggers the patient’s dyspnea, and does anything help make it better?
If a person has already been diagnosed with a condition such as COPD or emphysema, 呼吸困难的原因很清楚. 然而, if their provider isn’t sure what is causing shortness of breath, 他们可能会要求进行诊断性检查，如血液检查, 肺功能检查, x光或CT扫描. The patient may also be referred to a specialist such as a cardiologist or a gastroenterologist if a specific medical condition is causing or exacerbating their dyspnea.
Treatment of dyspnea will depend on the underlying condition that is affecting the patient’s breathing. 治疗呼吸困难的药物包括:
- Corticosteroids to reduce swelling and inflammation in the lungs
Patients with pulmonary disease also may need an oxygen tank to help them get enough air.
In some cases, surgery may be required to treat chronic, moderate to severe dyspnea. Surgical treatments can address certain conditions that cause shortness of breath,包括:
For some patients, dyspnea is caused or exacerbated by anxiety. Breathing and relaxation techniques can reduce or control shortness of breath. 补充疗法, 包括物理治疗, 按摩, 冥想, and reflexology also may help patients stay calm and control their breathing.
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